Hello there, to address your questions
1 Software/DAW As far as software goes, the obvious free choice is audacity. For $60 dollars you can get Reaper http://www.reaper.fm/purchase.php this was my very first DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) i started using it in middleschool and only just recently stopped because the lack of MIDI capabilities, but for audio recording it is PERFECT! (If you'd rather try Reaper first it does have an unlimited free trial, sot theres that. It comes with most standard plugins like EQ's and Compressors and such.) Most of the other DAW's i've seen are basically $100+ for the lite edition, $250+ for the extended edition and $400+ for the full edition (this is of course a generalization, but prices tend to follow that trend.) I'd go with Reaper
2 Microphone. There's 2 ways you can approach this
A. Buy an entry level USB condenser microphone like the AT2020 they trend from $50-$90 on ebay or this http://www.samash.com/c01u-usb-studio-condenser-microphone-(b-stock)-sc01ucwbx?cm_mmc=GoogleShopping-_-Microphones-_-Channeladvisor-_-Samson+C01U+USB+Studio+Condenser+Microphone+(B-Stock)&utm_source=GSH&utm_medium=CSE&utm_campaign=Channeladvisor&CAWELAID=500002510000033787&CAGPSPN=pla&catargetid=500002510000028166&cadevice=c&gclid=CjwKEAiA8_KlBRD9z_jl_fKBhQkSJABDKqiXpg6Rrh4JkQuhhiWJn6lSHShuG7qnB07OyFRZOd2r3hoC3Obw_wcB
B. Buy an audio interface (Like this http://www.sweetwater.com/store/detail/ScarlettSolo?adpos=1o1&creative=55225946401&device=c&matchtype=&network=g&gclid=CjwKEAiA8_KlBRD9z_jl_fKBhQkSJABDKqiXVgxPehNPrzFRQIqZr-K_wauBorhC5VQL66IhrYTbIBoC7rXw_wcB) and a standard XLR Condenser Microphone to connect to the audio interface.
3 Location. The closet is your best option here, i know singers and instrumentalists who record in their closets because they cant afford studio time or don't have a soundproofed home. A microphone stand and a pop filter will be your best friend, It also helps to advise the people in your home to quiet down while you record your VO's.
3A. Learning about the basics of mixing and mastering is also a good idea
I'd personally pick up a Samson CO1U (Mic), Reaper(Daw), a $15 stand, and a $10 pop filter.
(This is from a college dude thats been working with audio since middle school.)